Malignant gliomas frequently show genetic aberrations of genes coding for cell cycle regulatory proteins involved in the control of G1/S phase transition. These include mutation and/or deletion of the retinoblastoma (RB1) gene, homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes, as well as amplification and overexpression of the CDK4 and CDK6 genes. The D-type cyclins (cyclin D1, D2, and D3) promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase by binding to and activating the cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk6. Here, we have investigated a series of 110 primary malignant gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines for amplification and expression of the D-type cyclin genes CCND1 (11q13), CCND2 (12p13), and CCND3 (6p21). We found the CCND1 gene amplified and overexpressed in one anaplastic astrocytoma of our tumor series. Two glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma showed CCND2 gene amplification, but lacked significant overexpression of CCND2 transcripts. Amplification and overexpression of the CCND3 gene was detected in the glioblastoma cell line CCF-STTG1, as well as in one primary glioblastoma and in the sarcomatous component of one gliosarcoma. Our data thus suggest that amplification and increased expression of CCND1 and CCND3 contribute to the loss of cell cycle control in a small fraction of human malignant gliomas.