Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, is one of the most serious diseases of rice. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of Pib, one of the rice blast resistance genes. The Pib gene was isolated by a map-based cloning strategy. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Pib gene product contains a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeats (LRRs); thus, Pib is a member of the NBS-LRR class of plant disease resistance genes. Interestingly, a duplication of the kinase 1a, 2 and 3a motifs of the NBS region was found in the N-terminal half of the Pib protein. In addition, eight cysteine residues are clustered in the middle of the LRRs, a feature which has not been reported for other R genes. Pib gene expression was induced upon altered environmental conditions, such as altered temperatures and darkness.