The aim of this explorative study was prospectively to evaluate the presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with hematological malignant disorders undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The findings were related to sense of coherence and quality of life aspects. Twenty patients were evaluated with four standardized instruments before undergoing ASCT and then at two follow-ups. The patients participating in the study reported PTSS levels high enough to merit attention. Although PTSS declined over time, the levels were still high compared with other studied populations of cancer patients. Intrusive and avoidant symptoms correlated significantly to anxiety and depression but not to sense of coherence and physical dimensions. The high levels of PTSS and their relation to emotional distress emphasize the importance of psychosocial care for this group of patients.