Present status of the application of cryopreserved hepatocytes in the evaluation of xenobiotics: consensus of an international expert panel

Chem Biol Interact. 1999 Jun 1;121(1):117-23. doi: 10.1016/s0009-2797(99)00081-2.


Successful cryopreservation of freshly isolated hepatocytes would significantly decrease the need for freshly-procured livers for the preparation of hepatocytes for experimentation. Hepatocytes can be prepared, cryopreserved, and used for experimentation as needed at different times after isolation. Cryopreservation is especially important for research with human hepatocytes because of the limited availability of fresh human livers. Based on the cumulative experience of this international expert panel, a consensus was reached on the various aspects of hepatocyte cryopreservation, including cryopreservation and thawingprocedures and applications of the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Key to successful cryopreservation includes slow addition of cryopreservants, controlled-rate freezing with adjustment for the heat of crystallization, storage at -150 degrees C, and rapid thawing. There is a general consensus that cryopreserved hepatocytes are useful for short-term xenobiotic metabolism and cytotoxicity evaluation.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Survival
  • Cryopreservation / methods*
  • Drug Evaluation
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Liver* / cytology
  • Liver* / metabolism
  • Organ Preservation / methods*
  • Xenobiotics / metabolism*


  • Xenobiotics