[The DASH(Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand) Questionnaire--a new instrument for evaluating upper extremity treatment outcome]

Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 1999 May;31(3):149-52. doi: 10.1055/s-1999-13902.
[Article in German]


The paper presents the translation of a new measurement tool, the DASH Questionnaire. The DASH (Disability of Arm--Shoulder--Hand) is an outcomes data collection instrument which has been developed by the "American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons", the Council of the "Musculoskeletal Specialty Societies", and the "Institute for Work and Health", in order to assess outcomes among patient groups with musculoskeletal disorders. Using a self-report system, patients attribute scores of 1 to 5 on 30 items relating to functional activities and symptoms; a further optional module contains four items relating to disability levels among musicians and athletes. The raw score is then transformed to a 0 to 100 scale, whereby 0 reflects minimum and 100 maximum disability. The subjective nature of this instrument makes it suitable for both postal or in situ clinical surveys. The instrument is in the process of validation for use with a German population.

MeSH terms

  • Arm*
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Germany
  • Hand*
  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / rehabilitation*
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care*
  • Shoulder*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires