Recurrent acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV-r) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections occurred in a patient with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency syndrome composed of three clinical characteristics of immunodeficiency, thrombocytopenia, and an eczematous dermatitis. The patient had severe and recurrent ACV-r herpes simplex and was treated with vidarabine in a satisfactory manner from 1993 to 1997. During the 4-year observation period, two ACV-sensitive (ACV-s) HSV-1 isolates and five ACV-r HSV-1 isolates were recovered. The nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene from these sequential ACV-r isolates was compared with the ACV-s isolates. A single nucleotide deletion of cytosine (C) from homopolymer stretch of four C residues between nucleotide 1061 and 1064 of the open reading frame was found in all ACV-r isolates. No other differences were observed in the TK nucleotide sequence between ACV-s and ACV-r isolates. The TK nucleotide sequences of the two ACV-s isolates were identical to each other and those of the five ACV-r isolates were identical to one another. These results suggest that the ACV-r HSV-1 might have derived from the ACV-s strain in the patient body and that TK-associated ACV-r HSV-1 can reactivate from latency.