Five year results of LINAC radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: outcome for large AVMS

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Jul 15;44(5):1089-106. doi: 10.1016/s0360-3016(99)00102-9.


Purpose: For radiosurgery of large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the optimal relationship of dose and volume to obliteration, complications, and hemorrhage is not well defined. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the relationship of multiple AVM and treatment factors to the outcome of AVMs significantly larger than previously reported in the literature.

Methods and materials: 73 patients with intracranial AVMs underwent LINAC radiosurgery. Over 50% of the AVMs were larger than 3 cm in diameter and the median and mean treatment volumes were 8.4 cc and 15.3 cc, respectively (range 0.4-143.4 cc). Minimum AVM treatment doses varied between 1000-2200 cGy (median: 1600 cGy).

Results: The obliteration rates for treatment volumes < 4 cc, 4-13.9 cc, and > or = 14 cc were 67%, 58%, and 23%, respectively. AVM obliteration was significantly associated with higher minimum treatment dose and negatively associated with a history of prior embolization with particulate materials. No AVM receiving < 1400 cGy was obliterated. The incidence of post-radiosurgical imaging abnormalities and clinical complications rose with increasing treatment volume. For treatment volumes > 14 cc receiving > or = 1600 cGy, the incidence of post-radiosurgical MRI T2 abnormalities was 72% and the incidence of radiation necrosis requiring resection was 22%. The rate of post-radiosurgical hemorrhage was 2.7% per person-year for AVMs with treatment volumes < 14 cc and 7.5% per person-year for AVMs > or = 14 cc.

Conclusion: As AVM size increases, the dose-volume range for the optimal balance between successful obliteration and the risk of complications and post-radiosurgical hemorrhage narrows.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Brain / radiation effects
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / mortality
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Necrosis
  • Prognosis
  • Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • Radiation Injuries / pathology
  • Radiosurgery* / adverse effects
  • Radiosurgery* / mortality
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Risk Factors