Drug metabolism and atypical antipsychotics

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999 Jun;9(4):301-9. doi: 10.1016/s0924-977x(98)00040-6.


The introduction of the atypical antipsychotics clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and sertindole for the treatment of schizophrenia has coincided with an increased awareness of the potential of drug-drug interactions, particularly involving the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The current literature describing the pharmacokinetics of the metabolism of these agents, including their potential to influence the metabolism of other medications, is reviewed. Clozapine appears to be metabolized primarily by CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, with additional contributions by CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. In addition, clozapine may inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, and induce CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A. Risperidone is metabolized by CYP2D6, and possibly CYP3A4. In vitro data indicate that olanzapine is metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. Quetiapine is metabolised by CYP3A4 and sertindole by CYP2D6. There is, however, a general paucity of in vivo data regarding the metabolism of the atypical antipsychotics, indicating a need for further research in this area.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antipsychotic Agents / metabolism*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Clozapine / metabolism
  • Clozapine / therapeutic use
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Dibenzothiazepines / metabolism
  • Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use
  • Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / metabolism
  • Imidazoles / therapeutic use
  • Indoles / metabolism
  • Indoles / therapeutic use
  • Olanzapine
  • Pirenzepine / analogs & derivatives
  • Pirenzepine / metabolism
  • Pirenzepine / therapeutic use
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Risperidone / metabolism
  • Risperidone / therapeutic use
  • Schizophrenia / drug therapy*
  • Schizophrenia / enzymology
  • Schizophrenia / metabolism


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Dibenzothiazepines
  • Imidazoles
  • Indoles
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Pirenzepine
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • sertindole
  • Clozapine
  • Risperidone
  • Olanzapine