Annexin II has been identified as a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-binding protein, shown to be a component of purified virions and proposed as a cellular receptor for the virus. In addition, annexin II is capable of associating with the major HCMV envelope glycoprotein, gB (gpUL55). As one approach to examine the role of annexin II in virus entry, a high-titre polyclonal annexin II-specific antibody was produced and its effects in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread assays were tested. This anti-annexin II serum recognized virion and cell surface annexin II and annexin II-derived peptides. Recombinant annexin II, with characteristic calcium- and phospholipid-binding activities, was also examined. Pretreatment of cells, virions or both with polyclonal anti-annexin II serum, affinity-purified anti-annexin II antibodies or recombinant annexin II protein prior to infection was inconsequential to the entry of HCMV into fibroblasts. HCMV was also able to dose-dependently penetrate annexin II-deficient 293 cells. Furthermore, the spread of HCMV from cell to cell was not inhibited in the presence of polyclonal anti-annexin II antibodies or exogenous annexin II protein. These experiments do not support a direct role of annexin II in virus entry or spread. Alternative roles for the gB-annexin II interaction are proposed.