The Na channel voltage sensor associated with inactivation is localized to the external charged residues of domain IV, S4

Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):747-57. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(99)76929-8.


Site-3 toxins have been shown to inhibit a component of gating charge (33% of maximum gating charge, Q(max)) in native cardiac Na channels that has been identified with the open-to-inactivated state kinetic transition. To investigate the role of the three outermost arginine amino acid residues in segment 4 domain IV (R1, R2, R3) in gating charge inhibited by site-3 toxins, we recorded ionic and gating currents from human heart Na channels with mutations of the outermost arginines (R1C, R1Q, R2C, and R3C) expressed in fused, mammalian tsA201 cells. All four mutations had ionic currents that activated over the same voltage range with slope factors of their peak conductance-voltage (G-V) relationships similar to those of wild-type channels, although decay of I(Na) was slowest for R1C and R1Q mutant channels and fastest for R3C mutant channels. After Na channel modification by Ap-A toxin, decays of I(Na) were slowed to similar values for all four channel mutants. Toxin modification produced a graded effect on gating charge (Q) of mutant channels, reducing Q(max) by 12% for the R1C and R1Q mutants, by 22% for the R2C mutant, and by 27% for the R3C mutant, only slightly less than the 31% reduction seen for wild-type currents. Consistent with these findings, the relationship of Q(max) to G(max) was significantly shallower for R1 mutants than for R2C and R3C mutant Na channels. These data suggest that site-3 toxins primarily inhibit gating charge associated with movement of the S4 in domain IV, and that the outermost arginine contributes the largest amount to channel gating, with other arginines contributing less.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arginine / chemistry
  • Binding Sites
  • Biophysical Phenomena
  • Biophysics
  • Cell Line
  • Electrochemistry
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Ion Channel Gating
  • Kinetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Protein Conformation
  • Recombinant Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Sodium Channel Blockers*
  • Sodium Channels / chemistry*
  • Sodium Channels / genetics


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • Sodium Channels
  • Arginine