Solution stability of linear vs. cyclic RGD peptides

J Pept Res. 1999 May;53(5):530-41. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-3011.1999.00052.x.


Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides contain an aspartic acid residue that is highly susceptible to chemical degradation and leads to the loss of biological activity. Our hypothesis is that cyclization of RGD peptides via disulphide bond linkage can induce structural rigidity, thereby preventing degradation mediated by the aspartic acid residue. In this paper, we compared the solution stability of a linear peptide (Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-OH; 1) and a cyclic peptide (cyclo-(1, 6)-Ac-Cys-Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Pen-NH2; 2) as a function of pH and buffer concentration. The decomposition of both peptides was studied in buffers ranging from pH 2-12 at 50 degrees C. Reversed-phase HPLC was used as the main tool in determining the degradation rates and pathways of both peptides. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to characterize peptides 1 and 2 and their degradation products. In addition, co-elution with authentic samples was used to identify degradation products. Both peptides displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics at all pH values studied. The cyclic peptide 2 appeared to be 30-fold more stable than the linear peptide 1 at pH 7. The degradation mechanisms of linear (1) and cyclic (2) peptides primarily involved the aspartic acid residue. However, above pH 8 the stability of the cyclic peptide decreased dramatically due to disulphide bond degradation. Both peptides also exhibited a change in degradation mechanism upon an increase in pH. The increase in stability of cyclic peptide 2 compared to linear peptide 1, especially at neutral pH, may be due to decreased structural flexibility imposed by the ring. This rigidity would prevent the Asp side chain carboxylic acid from orientating itself in the appropriate position for attack on the peptide backbone.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cysteine / chemistry
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Oligopeptides / chemical synthesis
  • Oligopeptides / chemistry*
  • Oligopeptides / isolation & purification
  • Penicillamine / chemistry
  • Peptides, Cyclic / chemical synthesis
  • Peptides, Cyclic / chemistry*
  • Peptides, Cyclic / isolation & purification
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Denaturation
  • Solubility
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Oligopeptides
  • Peptides, Cyclic
  • cyclo(1,6)acetylcysteinyl-arginyl-glycyl-aspartyl-phenylalanyl-penicillaminamide
  • arginyl-glycyl-aspartyl-phenylalanine
  • Penicillamine
  • Cysteine