We have prepared mouse and rat hybridomas to a 43-kDa molecule expressed in the thymus, on a subpopulation of dendritic cells, and in the brain, in mammalian tissue derived from mouse, rat and human. Using CHO cells transiently transfected with adenovirus vector(s) expressing a cDNA construct for the relevant OX-2 gene, we show these monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) detect a molecule encoded by this construct (rat OX-2 (rOX-2), mouse OX-2 (mOX-2) and human OX-2 (huOX-2), respectively). Furthermore, at least some of the anti-rat Mabs detect determinants expressed on the murine OX-2 molecule, as we predicted in an earlier publication. Previous studies have implied that this molecule might serve an important role in regulation of cell signaling for cytokine production. Using one-way mixed leukocyte reactions we show that when cells are cultured in the presence of the species-specific Mab, cytokine production becomes polarized 'away from' type-2 cytokine production, with preferentially increased expression of type-1 cytokine production.