The proximal promoter and first intron of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene contains response sequences for insulin and glucose, but the 2- to 3-fold increase in FAS promoter activity attributable to these sequences falls short of the 20- to 30-fold induction in hepatic FAS gene transcription observed in fasted-refed rats. Using DNase I hypersensitivity site (HSS) mapping, two new liver specific sites were localized to the regions of: -8600 to -8500 (HSS 1) and -7300 to -7000 (HSS 2). DNase sensitivity of the -7300 to -7000 region was increased when fasted rats were refed glucose. When rat hepatocytes were transfected with a CAT construct that linked the region of -9700 and -4606 with the insulin response region located between -265 to +65, FAS promoter activity was induced 15-fold. This increase required the presence of both insulin and glucocorticoids. Deleting HSS 2 abolished the 15-fold induction in FAS promoter activity, but removing HSS 1 was without effect. Apparently the in vivo regulation of hepatic FAS gene transcription requires response elements located in the region of -7300 to -7000 and -265 to +65.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.