Several reports have described the occurrence of chromosome abnormalities in autism, a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communication impairment, and a restricted range of interests. These include the fragile X abnormality and 15q duplications. In this report, we describe two cases of chromosome 2q37 and review the literature on this topic. We propose that deletion of the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q37) may be associated with some cases of autism and with a distinct phenotype. Increased awareness of the dysmorphic features associated with 2q37 deletions may aid in the molecular genetic analysis of this chromosome anomaly and clarify its relationship with autism.