A phylogenetic investigation was done on the members of the genus Bartonella, based on the DNA sequence analysis of the groEL gene, which encodes the 60 kDa heat-shock protein GroEL. Nucleotide sequence data were determined for a near full-length fragment (1368 bp) of the groEL gene of the established Bartonella species and used to infer intraspecies phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from multiple sequence alignments by using both distance and parsimony methods, which demonstrated an architecture composed of six well-supported lineages. The results are consistent with relationships deduced from recent sequence analysis studies based upon citrate synthase (gItA) and previously observed genotypic and phenotypic characteristics; however, they showed greater statistical support at the intragenus level. This suggests that groEL may be a more robust tool for phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella lineages.