This study describes the adequacy of water intake among nursing home residents and identifies variables associated with the adequacy of water intake. Ninety-nine nursing home residents were observed for two 24-hour periods to record food and fluid ingested, ingestion behaviors, and function. Mean water intake (based on food and fluid) was 1,968 mL per day, ranging from 597 mL to 2,988 mL. Only eight subjects met their standard water requirement of 1,600 mL/m2 body surface area. Subjects with inadequate water intake were older, more independent, had few ingestion sessions per day, had intact speech, were semidependent with eating, did not drool, and had inadequate nutrient intake.