Conserved transactivation domain shared by interferon regulatory factors and Smad morphogens

J Mol Med (Berl). 1999 May;77(5):403-5. doi: 10.1007/s001090050369.


Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) regulate the transcription of both interferon-inducible genes and interferons themselves. Along with the N-terminal, DNA-binding, winged-helix domain, most IRFs contain the C-terminal domains that are shown to be related to the C-terminal domains in the proteins of the Smad family that mediate transcription activation in the transforming growth factor response pathway. Comparison of the IRF-Smad alignment to the known three-dimensional structure of human tumor suppressor Smad4 suggests that a conserved loop, equivalent to Loop 3 in Smad 4, is a determinant of protein-protein interaction in IRFs.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Interferons / genetics*
  • Interferons / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphoproteins / chemistry*
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Smad4 Protein
  • Trans-Activators / chemistry*
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcriptional Activation*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • IRF1 protein, human
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Phosphoproteins
  • SMAD4 protein, human
  • Smad4 Protein
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Interferons