High levels of foreign gene expression in hepatocytes after tail vein injections of naked plasmid DNA

Hum Gene Ther. 1999 Jul 1;10(10):1735-7. doi: 10.1089/10430349950017734.


We have previously shown that the intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA enables foreign gene expression in muscle. Further studies showed that the intravascular delivery of naked plasmid DNA enables high levels of expression not only in muscle but also in hepatocytes. For the liver, this technique required injection directly into the liver vessels (portal vein, hepatic vein, or bile duct) and occlusion of outflow. The present study now demonstrates that high levels of plasmid DNA expression in hepatocytes can be easily obtained by tail vein injections. The highest levels of expression are achieved by rapidly injecting the plasmid DNA in large volumes, approximately 2.5 ml. This technique has great potential for a wide variety of laboratory studies.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Gene Expression*
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Liver* / cytology
  • Luciferases / genetics
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Plasmids*
  • beta-Galactosidase / genetics


  • Luciferases
  • beta-Galactosidase