Newly replicated DNA is assembled into chromatin through two principle pathways. Firstly, parental nucleosomes segregate to replicated DNA, and are transferred directly to one of the two daughter strands during replication fork passage. Secondly, chromatin assembly factors mediate de-novo assembly of nucleosomes on replicating DNA using newly synthesized and acetylated histone proteins. In somatic cells, chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) appears to be a key player in assembling new nucleosomes during DNA replication. It provides a molecular connection between newly synthesized histones and components of the DNA replication machinery during the S phase of the cell division cycle.