Objective: To describe clinical and MRI features of patients with a disease suggestive of CNS inflammation after hepatitis B vaccination.
Methods: Eight patients with confirmed CNS inflammation occurring less than 10 weeks after hepatitis B vaccination are described. They received follow-up clinically and on MRI for a mean period of 18 months.
Results: Clinical and MRI findings were compatible with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. However, clinical follow-up, repeated MRI, or both showed the persistence of inflammatory activity, which makes this encephalitis more suggestive of MS than of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Conclusion: The persistent inflammatory activity observed clinically and on MRI in these patients is comparable with that usually observed in MS. Epidemiologic studies are currently testing the hypothesis of a triggering role of hepatitis B vaccination in CNS demyelination.