The substantia nigra of the human brain. II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease

Brain. 1999 Aug:122 ( Pt 8):1437-48. doi: 10.1093/brain/122.8.1437.


To achieve accuracy in studying the patterns of loss of midbrain dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide the substantia nigra with landmarks independent of the degenerative process. Within the substantia nigra pars compacta, we identified dopamine-containing neurons in the calbindin-rich regions ('matrix') and in five calbindin-poor pockets ('nigrosomes') defined by analysis of the three-dimensional networks formed by the calbindin-poor zones. These zones were recognizable in all of the brains, despite severe loss of dopamine-containing neurons. The degree of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta was related to the duration of the disease, and the cell loss followed a strict order. The degree of neuronal loss was significantly higher in the nigrosomes than in the matrix. Depletion was maximum (98%) in the main pocket (nigrosome 1), located in the caudal and mediolateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Progressively less cell loss was detectable in more medial and more rostral nigrosomes, following the stereotyped order of nigrosome 1 > nigrosome 2 > nigrosome 4 > nigrosome 3 > nigrosome 5. A parallel, but lesser, caudorostral gradient of cell loss was observed for dopamine-containing neurons included in the matrix. This pattern of neuronal loss was consistent from one parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta to another. The spatiotemporal progression of neuronal loss related to disease duration can thus be drawn in the substantia nigra pars compacta for each Parkinson's disease patient: depletion begins in the main pocket (nigrosome 1) and then spreads to other nigrosomes and the matrix along rostral, medial and dorsal axes of progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calbindins
  • Dopamine / analysis
  • Dopamine / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Nerve Degeneration / pathology
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / pathology*
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism
  • Parkinson Disease / pathology*
  • Reference Values
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis
  • Substantia Nigra / cytology
  • Substantia Nigra / metabolism
  • Substantia Nigra / pathology*
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / analysis


  • Calbindins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Dopamine