Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a significant neurologic morbidity in survivors of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with a reported incidence of up to 60%. In a historical cohort study of 37 neonates with CDH, we investigated the use of pancuronium bromide (PB) and common ototoxic drugs during the neonatal period and their relationship to SNHL in childhood survivors. Survivors with SNHL (n = 23) had significantly higher cumulative dose of PB administered during the neonatal illness than survivors without SNHL (n = 14). The cumulative dose and duration of PB use significantly correlated (r = 0.66-0.81) and independently predicted (adjusted r (2) = 0.42-0.64) the greatest intensity (in decibels) and the widest band (lowest frequency in hertz) loss of SNHL. No differences were identified between survivors with and without SNHL regarding demographic and neonatal characteristics (including oxygenation and ventilation variables and the cumulative dose and duration of therapy with aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and furosemide), although survivors with SNHL had received a modestly higher cumulative dose of ethacrynic acid than survivors without SNHL. Although we show that prolonged administration of PB during the neonatal period is associated with SNHL in childhood survivors of CDH, further multicenter studies are required to investigate the possible etiologies of SNHL in this high-risk population.