This study examined negative HIV-related expectancies, AIDS-related bereavement, and the interaction of expectancies and bereavement as predictors of the onset of significant HIV-related symptoms among previously asymptomatic HIV-positive gay men. From a longitudinal psychobiological investigation, 72 men were selected who had been HIV-positive and asymptomatic from study entry (approximately 3 years). Participants were followed for an additional 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 years after psychosocial assessment, with symptom status assessed every 6 months. The interaction of negative HIV-specific expectancies and bereavement was a significant predictor of symptom onset. Negative HIV-specific expectancies predicted the subsequent development of symptoms among bereaved men, controlling for immunological status, use of zidovudine, high-risk sexual behavior, substance use, and depression.