Exfoliative cytology of atypical polypoid adenomyoma. A case report

Acta Cytol. 1999 Jul-Aug;43(4):637-40. doi: 10.1159/000331158.


Background: An atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is a well-defined entity. It occurs in the endometrium, lower uterine segment and endocervix. It is usually composed of atypical complex glands with squamous metaplasia admixed with myofibromatous stroma.

Case: A 35-year-old female presented with one-year history of irregular menstrual periods. A diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ was rendered on her cervicovaginal smear. Pelvic examination revealed an enlarged uterus due to a leiomyoma. Colposcopic examination revealed a 0.6-cm, sessile, polypoid mass at the junction of the endocervix and ectocervix. A cone biopsy of the lesion showed irregular, endometrial-type glands embedded in a prominent myofibromatous stroma. The atypical glandular component of the mass demonstrated varying degrees of architectural complexity, ranging from simple to complex hyperplasia. In tissue sections the lesion was diagnosed as APA of the cervix. The patient underwent a hysterectomy for the leiomyoma. The hysterectomy specimen showed an 8.5-cm leiomyoma. The cervix and uterine corpus revealed no residual APA.

Conclusion: APA of the cervix should be considered among the differential diagnoses of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance. The diagnosis of APA cannot be made on cytology; the final diagnosis requires histologic confirmation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adenomyoma / pathology*
  • Adult
  • Biopsy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • Vaginal Smears