Complete nucleotide sequence of pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome and dating evolutionary divergence within Artiodactyla

Gene. 1999 Aug 5;236(1):107-14. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00247-4.


The complete nucleotide sequence of the pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome, containing 16613bp, is presented in this report. The genome is not a specific length because of the presence of the variable numbers of tandem repeats, 5'-CGTGCGTACA in the displacement loop (D-loop). Genes responsible for 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 protein-coding regions are found. The genome carries very few intergenic nucleotides with several instances of overlap between protein-coding or tRNA genes, except in the D-loop region. For evaluating the possible evolutionary relationships between Artiodactyla and Cetacea, the nucleotide substitutions and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes were aligned by pairwise comparisons of the pig, cow, and fin whale. By comparing these sequences, we suggest that there is a closer relationship between the pig and cow than that between either of these species and fin whale. In addition, the accumulation of transversions and gaps in pig 12S and 16S rRNA genes was compared with that in other eutherian species, including cow, fin whale, human, horse, and harbor seal. The results also reveal a close phylogenetic relationship between pig and cow, as compared to fin whale and others. Thus, according to the sequence differences of mitochondrial rRNA genes in eutherian species, the evolutionary separation of pig and cow occurred about 53-60 million years ago.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids
  • Animals
  • Artiodactyla / genetics*
  • Cattle / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA, Mitochondrial*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • Swine / genetics*
  • Whales / genetics


  • Amino Acids
  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • RNA, Ribosomal
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF034253