Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of 18 adult New Zealand White rabbits. These cells were culture expanded, suspended in type I collagen gel, and implanted into a surgically induced defect in the donor s right patellar tendon. A cell-free collagen gel was implanted into an identical control defect in the left patellar tendon. Repair tissues were evaluated biomechanically (n = 13) and histomorphometrically (n = 5) at 4 weeks after surgery. Compared to their matched controls, the MSC-mediated repair tissue demonstrated significant increases of 26% (p < 0.001), 18% (p < 0. 01), and 33% (p < 0.02) in maximum stress, modulus, and strain energy density, respectively. Qualitatively, there appeared to be minor improvements in the histological appearance of some of the MSC- mediated repairs, including increased number of tenocytes and larger and more mature-looking collagen fiber bundles. Morphometrically, however, there were no significant left-right differences in nuclear aspect ratio (shape) or nuclear alignment (orientation). Therefore, delivering a large number of mesenchymal stem cells to a wound site can significantly improve its biomechanical properties by only 4 weeks but produce no visible improvement in its microstructure.