A randomized clinical trial of mupirocin in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in human immunodeficiency virus disease

J Infect Dis. 1999 Sep;180(3):896-9. doi: 10.1086/314949.


Seventy-six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage were randomized to treatment groups receiving intranasal mupirocin or placebo twice daily for 5 days. Nasal cultures for S. aureus were obtained at 1, 2, 6, and 10 weeks after therapy. At 1 week, 88% of mupirocin-treated patients had negative nasal cultures compared with 8% in placebo patients (P<.001). The percentage of mupirocin-treated patients with persistently negative nasal cultures decreased over time (63%, 45%, and 29% at 2, 6, and 10 weeks, respectively) but remained significantly greater than the placebo group (3% at 2, 6, and 10 weeks). In mupirocin-treated patients, most (16/19) instances of nasal recolonization were with pretreatment strains (determined by means of by pulsed field gel electrophoresis); mupirocin resistance was not observed. Five days of treatment with mupirocin eliminated S. aureus nasal carriage in HIV-infected patients for several weeks; however, since the effect waned over time, intermittent dosing regimens should be considered for long-term eradication.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy*
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / transmission
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Mupirocin / therapeutic use*
  • Nasal Lavage Fluid / microbiology*
  • Ointments
  • Placebos
  • Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Staphylococcal Infections / transmission
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Ointments
  • Placebos
  • Mupirocin