Animal plasma membrane energization by proton-motive V-ATPases

Bioessays. 1999 Aug;21(8):637-48. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199908)21:8<637::AID-BIES3>3.0.CO;2-W.

Abstract

Proton-translocating, vacuolar-type ATPases, well known energizers of eukaryotic, vacuolar membranes, now emerge as energizers of many plasma membranes. Just as Na(+) gradients, imposed by Na(+)/K(+) ATPases, energize basolateral plasma membranes of epithelia, so voltage gradients, imposed by H(+) V-ATPases, energize apical plasma membranes. The energized membranes acidify or alkalinize compartments, absorb or secrete ions and fluids, and underwrite cellular homeostasis. V-ATPases acidify extracellular spaces of single cells such as phagocytes and osteoclasts and of polarized epithelia, such as vertebrate kidney and epididymis. They alkalinize extracellular spaces of lepidopteran midgut. V-ATPases energize fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules and fluid absorption by insect oocytes. They hyperpolarize external plasma membranes for Na(+) uptake by amphibian skin and fish gills. Indeed, it is likely that ion uptake by osmotically active membranes of all fresh water organisms is energized by V-ATPases. Awareness of plasma membrane energization by V-ATPases provides new perspectives for basic science and presents new opportunities for medicine and agriculture.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / enzymology*
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Digestive System / enzymology
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Kidney / enzymology
  • Male
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • Phagocytes / metabolism
  • Proton Pumps / metabolism
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / chemistry
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / classification
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / metabolism*
  • Sodium / metabolism
  • Spermatozoa / enzymology
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases*

Substances

  • Proton Pumps
  • Sodium
  • Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases