Early development and fitness in birds and mammals

Trends Ecol Evol. 1999 Sep;14(9):343-348. doi: 10.1016/s0169-5347(99)01639-0.


Conditions experienced during early development affect survival and reproductive performance in many bird and mammal species. Factors affecting early development can therefore have an important influence both on the optimization of life histories and on population dynamics. The understanding of these evolutionary and dynamic consequences is just starting to emerge.