N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor/channel (NMDAR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) antagonists applied independently reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampal slice preparation. When used in combination, the antagonists completely block the induction of LTP. In urethan-anesthetized rats we examined the effect of the NMDAR blocker MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) and the VDCC blocker Verapamil (10 mg/kg) on LTP induction in area CA1. Extracellular recordings were obtained from stratum radiatum following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals. LTP was induced by a 200-Hz/100-ms tetanus repeated 10 times (2 s isi). Tetanus was given in the presence of intraperitoneal saline, MK-801, Verapamil, or both Verapamil and MK-801. When given separately, Verapamil and MK-801 both significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP as compared with control animals. When given together, the drugs blocked the induction of LTP completely. We conclude that like LTP in vitro, VDCCs and NMDAR underlie two forms of LTP in vivo.