Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study

Int J Cancer. 1999 Sep 9;82(6):799-803. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19990909)82:6<799::aid-ijc5>;2-5.


A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agent in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 229 patients with different grades of CIN and invasive cervical cancer and 438 matched controls. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate known and probable risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical scrapes were tested for the presence of different HPV types using a general primer-mediated PCR followed by PCR-based sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 87% of all cancer in situ and invasive cancer cases, and 95% of invasive cases could be attributed to high-risk types. In control women, 39% were positive for HPV DNA sequences. HPV 16 prevalence ranked highest in all stages of cervical dysplasias, invasive cancers and controls. A statistically significant association with HPV was observed for CIN II, CIN III and invasive cancer, showing an upward trend to more severe lesions and being more pronounced for HPV 16 and related types. The OR for HPV 16- and 18-related invasive cancer cases was 14.88 (95% CI 5.12-43.25) and 74.66 (95% CI 7.77-717.62), respectively. Our results confirm a central role of HPV as the cause of cervical cancer in Honduras and provide information as to the type distribution of HPVs in the country.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • DNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Female
  • Honduras / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Odds Ratio
  • Papillomaviridae* / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae* / isolation & purification
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


  • DNA, Viral