Contemporary management of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Results from the Study of Patients Intolerant of Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (SPICE) Registry

Eur Heart J. 1999 Aug;20(16):1182-90. doi: 10.1053/euhj.1998.1481.


Aims: The reported prevalence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in patients with heart failure varies considerably. Recent reports suggest that many patients who could benefit from such therapy are not receiving ACE inhibitors. The Study of Patients Intolerant of Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (SPICE) Registry was established to understand better the demographics, characteristics, and contemporary use of ACE inhibitors in an international registry.

Methods and results: Between August 1996 and April 1997, each of 105 study centres from eight countries in North America and Europe was invited to review retrospectively the medical records of 100 consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fractions </=35%. The median age of the 9580 Registry patients was 66 years, 26% were women, the median ejection fraction was 27%, and the primary aetiology of left ventricular dysfunction was ischaemic (63%). Eighty percent of patients were receiving ACE inhibitors. The most common reason for non-use of ACE inhibitors was intolerance (9%).

Conclusion: The SPICE Registry provides a contemporary description of the demographics and management of patients with documented left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The contemporary use of ACE inhibitors (80%) appears to be higher than previously reported and the main reason for non-use is perceived intolerance (9%).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Utilization Review
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Systole
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / drug therapy*


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors