Chromium (Cr) is an essential mineral element that has received considerable public attention. The suggestion that Cr intake is generally low has generated interest regarding the purported beneficial effects of Cr supplementation on biological function and health of animals and humans. This review briefly describes key aspects of Cr nutritional status and evaluates the effects of Cr supplementation on various components of biological function, body composition, and health. A novel biological role of Cr in regulation of insulin function is described. Although promising results of Cr supplementation are presented, the considerable challenge of developing methods for routine assessment of Cr nutriture in humans remains.