Characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositiol-anchored, secreted, and intracellular vertebrate mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases

Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:485-509. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.485.


Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins in which the ADP-ribose moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is transferred to an acceptor amino acid. Five mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases (ART1--ART5) have been cloned and expression is restricted to tissues such as cardiac and skeletal muscle, leukocytes, brain, and testis. ART1 and ART2 are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ectoenzymes. ART5 appears not to be GPI-linked and may be secreted. In skeletal muscle and lymphocytes, ART1 modifies specific members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules, suggesting that ADP-ribosylation affects cell-matrix or cell-cell interactions. In lymphocytes, ADP-ribosylation of surface proteins is associated with changes in p56lck tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. The catalytic sites of bacterial toxins and vertebrate transferases have conserved structural features, consistent with a common reaction mechanism. ADP-ribosylation can be reversed by ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases, resulting in the regeneration of free arginine. Thus, an ADP-ribosylation cycle may play a regulatory role in vertebrate tissues.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ADP Ribose Transferases*
  • Animals
  • Birds
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / chemistry
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / chemistry
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
  • ADP Ribose Transferases
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases
  • ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase