Long-term functional and psychological problems in whiplash associated disorders

Int J Rehabil Res. 1999 Jun;22(2):77-84. doi: 10.1097/00004356-199906000-00001.


In recent years, Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) have been recognized as an increasing problem and up to 35% of patients have been reported to suffer from persisting symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe the consequences of pain and impairment of movement for everyday activities and dysfunction, in a sample of 104 chronic WAD patients. It was hypothesized that predictors such as initial grade of injury, self-efficacy and optimism, as well as mediating coping strategies, would influence the patients' quality of life in terms of dysfunction, disability, anxiety, depression and pain intensity. The results showed that chronic WAD patients differ from other groups in quality-of-life related indicators. Psychosocial problems were more pronounced than physical, while there were no gender differences. There was some evidence that use of specific coping strategies is a significant predictor of psychological well-being.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sickness Impact Profile
  • Time Factors
  • Whiplash Injuries* / classification
  • Whiplash Injuries* / complications
  • Whiplash Injuries* / psychology
  • Whiplash Injuries* / rehabilitation