Gender differences in smoking cessation

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Aug;67(4):555-62. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.67.4.555.


Gender differences in smoking quit rates are frequently reported and are the subject of much speculation. This study examined the generalizability of gender differences in abstinence across study sites, treatments, and time of relapse, as well as potential mediators and moderators of gender effects. Participants were smokers who participated in 3 randomized clinical trials of the nicotine patch (N = 632). Men had higher cessation rates than women at all follow-ups. The impact of gender on abstinence was unaffected by controlling for study site, treatment, or time of relapse. There was little evidence for mediation or moderation of this relation by any of a host of predictor variables. The magnitude and consistency of the gender differential, coupled with an inability to account for it, highlights a compelling need for additional research specifically aimed at elucidating the relation between gender and abstinence.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Personality Inventory
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Nicotine