In a surveillance study of candidemia in cancer patients that was conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, 249 episodes were noted; Candida albicans was isolated in 70% (63) of the 90 cases involving patients with solid tumors (tumor patients) and in 36% (58) of the 159 involving those with hematologic disease (hematology patients). Neutropenia in tumor patients and acute leukemia and antifungal prophylaxis in hematology patients were significantly associated with non-albicans candidemia in a multivariate analysis. Overall 30-day mortality was 39% (97 of 249). In a univariate analysis, Candida glabrata was associated with the highest mortality rate (odds ratio, 2.66). Two multivariate analyses showed that mortality was associated with older age and severity of the underlying disease. Among hematology patients, additional factors associated with mortality were allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, septic shock, and lack of antifungal prophylaxis.