Background: Anisakis simplex is a medically important pathogen which not only causes anisakiasis but may provoke allergy reactions, ranging from mild urticaria to anaphylactic shock.
Objective: To investigate anti-Anisakis isotype profiles in anisakiasis and Anisakis allergy patients.
Methods: Capture ELISA techniques were used to investigate the isotype profiles of antibodies specific for two defined Anisakis simplex antigens, in serum from Japanese patients with confirmed anisakiasis and from Spanish patients with allergy to Anisakis. The antigens were 'UA2R antigens' (two proteins with MW of 48 and 67 kDa, recognized by our monoclonal antibody UA2) and 'UA3R antigens' (two proteins with MW of 139 and 154 kDa, recognized by our monoclonal antibody UA3).
Results: Considering IgG, the two most frequent isotypes in the response to the UA2R antigens were IgG1 and IgG2, with IgG4 detected in only one case; in response to the UA3R antigens, by contrast, the two most frequent isotypes were IgG1 and IgG4 (though IgG2 remained reasonably frequent). As regards potential utility for serodiagnosis, 95% of the Japanese anisakiasis patients and 84% of the allergy patients showed detectable IgG1 antibodies to the UA3R antigens. Furthermore, all allergy patients showed IgE antibodies to these antigens.
Conclusion: Anisakis simplex contains antigens that induce responses which are differentially regulated. Because of their immunogenicity, immunodominance and allergenic nature, we consider that the 139/154-kDa antigens recognized by our MoAb UA3 are good candidates for use in tests for the diagnosis of anisakiasis and of the allergy caused by this parasite.