Regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the common tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) were studied immunohistochemically. Ten types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were localized in the gastric mucosa, i.e., chromogranin-, serotonin-, gastrin-, somatostatin-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-, enteroglucagon-, pancreatic glucagon-, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)-, motilin-, and substance P (SP)-immunoreactive (IR) cells. In the intestine, 13 types of immunoreactive cells were observed, i.e., chromogranin-, serotonin-, somatostatin-, gastrin-, BPP-, enteroglucagon-, PYY-, secretin-, cholecystokinin (CCK)-, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-, motilin-, neurotensin-, and SP-IR cells. The regional distribution and relative frequency of the cell types varied along the gastrointestinal tract. Basically, the types, distribution, and relative frequency of the gut endocrine cells were similar to those reported in other mammalian species. However, some characteristic findings were noted in the present study: (1) the considerably large number of gastrin-IR cells in the pyloric region; (2) numerous serotonin-IR cells in the stomach; (3) appreciable number of BPP-IR cells in the transitional region of the stomach; and (4) wide distribution of PYY- and motilin-IR cells in the gut.