The effect of monomer-to-powder ratio on the material properties of cranioplastic

Bone. 1999 Aug;25(2 Suppl):27S-29S. doi: 10.1016/s8756-3282(99)00129-5.


Percutaneous vertebroplasty consists of injecting polymethylmethacrylate cement into the cancellous bone of vertebral bodies for the treatment of various lesions of the spine, including osteoporotic compression fractures. Clinicians practicing vertebroplasty commonly alter the mixture of monomer-to-powder recommended by the manufacturer in an effort to decrease viscosity and increase the working time. The purpose of the current study was to measure the effect that varying the monomer-to-powder ratio has on the compressive material properties of a cement (Cranioplastic) commonly used in vertebroplasty. Cylindrical specimens were prepared varying a monomer-to-polymer ratio of 0.40 to 1.07 ml/g and tested per the American Society for Testing and Materials standard F451. Specimens prepared at 0.53 mL/g, which is near the manufacturer's recommended monomer-to-polymer mixture of 0.57 mL/g, exhibited the greatest mean values for ultimate compressive stress, yield stress, and elastic modulus. Specimens prepared at higher or lower ratios exhibited diminished strength, in some cases by as much as 24%. Although altering the monomer-to-powder ratio affects the cement's material properties, it is as yet unknown if the decrease is clinically significant.

MeSH terms

  • Bone Cements / chemistry*
  • Compressive Strength
  • Elasticity
  • Materials Testing*
  • Methylmethacrylate / chemistry*
  • Powders / chemistry
  • Stress, Mechanical


  • Bone Cements
  • Powders
  • Methylmethacrylate