Benign familial hematuria (BFH: MIM141200) is an autosomal-dominant disease accounting for one-fifth of all hematuria of unknown cause in children. Previous observations suggest that BFH may be allelic to recessive Alport syndrome (AS: MIM 203780) with a mutation in the COL4A3/COL4A4 locus. However, it is not clear whether all cases of BFH are due to heterozygous mutation of COL4A3/COL4A4 genes. We report here the exclusion of linkage between BFH and COL4A3/COL4A4 loci at 2q35-37 in a restricted population from Sicily (Italy). Total lod score is -9.6 at theta 0. Furthermore, in some cases exclusion of linkage is evident even considering single families. We conclude that BFH is genetically heterogeneous.