We had previously shown that ileal intraepithelial lymphocytes isolated from calves with cryptosporidiosis include significantly increased numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes and activated CD4+ cells. These increases could result from redistribution of resident mucosal lymphocytes or from homing of peripheral T cells to ileal mucosa. To determine whether resident mucosal lymphocytes can redistribute to Cryptosporidium parvum-infected epithelium, oocysts were inoculated in vitro onto ileum explants taken from 1-2-wk-old noninfected calves. After 24 hr of incubation, the explants were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Immunohistochemical analysis of T-lymphocyte subpopulations was performed on sections, and labeled lymphocytes adjacent to villous epithelial cells were counted. Compared with uninoculated explants, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells in oocyst-inoculated tissue. In addition, there were increased numbers of CD4+ T cells and activated (CD25+) lymphocytes adjacent to C. parvum-infected epithelium. These results show that resident mucosal T lymphocytes can accumulate at the epithelium during C. parvum infection.