Cognitive and psychosocial outcome following moderate or severe traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 1999 Jul;13(7):489-504. doi: 10.1080/026990599121403.


The outcome of 96 consecutive adult patients with moderate to severe head injury was sequentially measured at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury. In addition to global outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and a battery of neuropsychological tests of cognitive function, the Head Injury Symptom Checklist (HISC) and Relative's Questionnaire (RQ) were used. Although poorer GOS scores and severe cognitive impairments were typically associated with greater severity of initial injury, relatives reported similar functional problems irrespective of injury severity. This illustrates the legacy of moderate head injury in influencing many aspects of everyday life, supporting the argument that the needs of this group should not be overlooked.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Injuries / complications*
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology*
  • Female
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Humans
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Social Adjustment*