Regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS proteins) are a family of highly diverse, multifunctional signalling proteins that share a conserved 120 amino acid domain (RGS domain). RGS domains bind directly to activated Galpha subunits and act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) to attenuate and/or modulate hormone and neurotransmitter receptor-initiated signalling by both Galpha-GTP and Gbetagamma. Apart from this structural domain, which is shared by all known RGS proteins, these proteins differ widely in their overall size and amino acid identity and possess a remarkable variety of structural domains and motifs. These biochemical features impart signalling functions and/or enable RGS proteins to interact with a growing list of unexpected protein-binding partners with diverse cellular roles. New appreciation for the broader cellular functions of RGS proteins challenges established models of G-protein signalling and serves to identify these proteins as central participants in receptor signalling and cell physiology.