Technology to create and move multimedia medical information is creating alternatives to physically transporting patients and health care professionals. Teletechnology is a physician extender, both supplementing and reinventing traditional health care delivery systems. The potential of comprehensive teleophthalmology is compelling. This article provides a historical perspective of telemedicine, describes various teleophthalmology systems, and surveys teleophthalmology in clinical consultation, research, and education programs around the world. It also discusses basic issues in applying teleophthalmology to public health.