To reveal the intracellular localization of Hsp104 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae before and after heat-shock, we performed immunoelectron microscopy after immunogold labeling with anti-Hsp104 antibody. At normal temperature (25 degrees C), a small amount of Hsp104 was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. On exposure to mild heat-shock at 40 degrees C, protein aggregates appeared in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and Hsp104 increased around the aggregates with increasing time of the mild heat-shock treatment. Moreover, at lethal heat-shock temperature (51 degrees C) for 20 min after mild heat treatment at 40 degrees C, the intracellular localization of Hsp104 and intracellular structures were similar to those of the mild heat-shocked cells. However, in the lethally heat-shocked cells, certain intracellular structures were destroyed, and Hsp104 was not expressed. In the hsp104 null mutant strain Deltahsp104 which was treated at 40 degrees C, Hsp104 was not localized around the aggregates. Additionally, in the Deltahsp104 strain, even mild heat-shocked cells at 37 degrees C or 40 degrees C, showed destruction of intracellular structure compared to the wild-type strain. Our data suggest the following: (1) Hsp104 is associated closely with protein aggregates during heat-shock treatment, (2) Hsp104 is important for maintenance of the intracellular structure under lethal heat-shock conditions, (3) acquisition of thermotolerance depends on the amount of Hsp104 produced during mild heat-shock treatment.
Copyright 1999 Harcourt Brace & Co. Ltd.