Notifications of Ross River (RR) virus disease in Maroochy Shire were mapped according to the patient's place of residence, and standardized morbidity ratios were calculated for each of 11 census districts, with 4 areas having higher than average overall rates of RR virus disease notification. Temporal analysis of RR virus disease notifications from each of the 11 areas indicated that epidemics of RR virus disease either were widespread, resulting in higher than average numbers of cases from the majority of areas, or limited to only certain areas. Mosquitoes were collected in CO2 light traps, and the numbers analyzed to determine whether there was any association between mosquito abundance and disease incidence. Seasonal light trap indices for the fresh water-breeding Culex annulirostris Skuse and brackish water-breeding Aedes funereus (Theobald) were correlated positively with disease incidence. There was no apparent association between Aedes vigilax (Skuse) or Aedes procax (Skuse) light trap indices and disease incidence. Identification of human subpopulations with higher than average rates of RR virus disease, and the mosquito vectors associated with virus transmission, should provide a framework for the development of focused and therefore more effective control programs.