We examined the effect of intracolonic administration of anti-adhesion molecule antibodies on DSS-induced colitis in mice. Immunohistochemical staining in mice with colitis showed increased expression of ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 on endothelial cells of vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa at sites of inflamed lesions. Intracolonic administration of anti-ELAM-1 or anti-ICAM-1 antibody decreased bloody stools, anaemia, and histologically evident damage, as well as myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1beta content. We concluded that adhesion molecule expression is important in the development of DSS-induced colitis in mice and that intracolonic administration of anti-adhesion molecule antibodies, especially anti-ELAM-1 antibody, effectively inhibits the colonic inflammation. Intracolonic administration of anti-adhesion molecule antibodies may show therapeutic promise in ulcerative colitis.