Combined analysis of polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 promoter regions and polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in psoriasis

J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Aug;113(2):214-20. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00654.x.


Environmental and genetic factors are thought to interact in the manifestation of psoriasis, but knowledge about the involved genes and antigens is incomplete. This study has focused on the association between psoriasis and inherited variations in xenobiotic metabolism and cytokine production as two components that may influence cutaneous immune responses to foreign substances. Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2, glutathione S-transferases T1 and M1, and promoter polymorphisms of the genes encoding for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 were investigated in 151 Caucasian patients with psoriasis (100 with type I and 51 with type II psoriasis) and in 123 healthy controls. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-based methods, restriction enzyme analysis, and direct sequencing. There were no significant differences in the distribution of enzyme polymorphisms or point mutations at position -1082 of the interleukin-10 promoter between the psoriasis groups and the control group. The G-->A polymorphism at position -238 of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter (TNF alpha-238*A allele) was more common in type I psoriasis (27%) than in the controls [9.8%; odds ratio 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.6-7.2); p = 0.0012; pcorr = 0.018]. Surprisingly, this overrepresentation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha-238*A allele was observed in male patients [4.1 (1.5-11.0); p = 0.0046; pcorr = 0.064] but not in female patients [1.8 (0.5-6.5); p = 0.5]. The G-->A polymorphism at position -308 of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter was less frequent in type I psoriasis (23%) compared with controls (35.7%), although the negative association was weak [0.54 (0.3-0.97); p = 0.041; pcorr = not significant]. The distribution of the TNF alpha-238*A and TNF alpha-238*A alleles was similar in type II patients and controls. Our results suggest that male carriers of the G-->A polymorphism at position -238 of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter are at an increased risk to develop early-onset psoriasis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alleles
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics
  • Child
  • Dendritic Cells / enzymology
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / enzymology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Psoriasis / enzymology
  • Psoriasis / genetics*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sex Ratio
  • Skin / enzymology
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Glutathione Transferase