Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis is an unusual entity with light microscopic and ultrastructural features similar to those of nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis but without evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism. We report 2 patients whose renal biopsies showed nodular glomerulosclerosis with afferent and efferent arteriolosclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, focal mesangiolysis and capillary microaneurysm formation, and who had no evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism or other features of diabetes mellitus. Review of the literature shows that, of the 27 reported cases of idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (not including the 2 cases reported herein), 11 showed evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism or were frankly diabetic. Of the remaining 16 cases with normal serum blood glucose measurements, 3 had diabetic retinopathy and 1 had a delayed insulin response curve. The cause and pathogenesis of the glomerular nodules are discussed, and it is suggested that arteriolar stenosis and glomerular ischemia may be involved in the development these lesions.